Active Ingredients

CDC Recommended Repellents

Picaridin – 20% , A 'Conventional Repellent' effective to 8 hours across multiple species including the highland midge. Picaridin (KBR 3023 - chemical name, 2-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperidinecarboxylic acid 1-methylpropyl ester) is a colorless, nearly odorless liquid active ingredient that is used as an insect repellant against biting flies, mosquitoes, chiggers, and ticks. Picaridin products were sold in Europe and Australia for several years before being introduced to the U.S. market in 2005. Products contain a range of 5 to 20 percent of the active ingredient. See attached Fact Sheet.

Oil of Lemon Eucalyptus Is an extract from the leaves and twigs of Eucalyptus cittriodora also known as Corymbia citriodora.   The pesticide products using oil of lemon eucalyptus were registered in 2000 to repel mosquitoes and deer ticks.  There are several products now registered both as lotion and spray formulations.  As with most plant oils, no adverse effects to humans are expected from the use of oil of lemon eucalyptus products when label directions are followed.  Products contain a range of 30 to 40 percent of the active ingredient. See attached Fact Sheet.

PMD p-Mentane-3,8-diol is the chemically synthesized version of oil of lemon eucalyptus. It is applied to skin or to clothing to repel specific insects including mosquitoes, biting flies, and gnats. According to the CDC, when repellents containing p-Mentane-3,8-diol were tested against mosquitoes found in the U.S., the p-Mentane-3,8-diol products provided protection similar to repellants with low concentrations of DEET. Products contain a range of 8 to 10 percent of the active ingredient. See attached Fact Sheet.

DEET (chemical name, N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide or N,N-diethly-3-methyl-benzamide) is the active ingredient found in many insect repellent products. It is used to repel biting pests such as mosquitoes and ticks, including ticks that may carry Lyme disease. Products containing DEET currently are available to the public in a variety of liquids, lotions, sprays, and impregnated materials (e.g., wrist bands). Formulations registered for direct application to human skin contain from 4 to 100 percent DEET. See attached Fact Sheet.